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How does a switch differ from a hub?
A. A switch does not induce any latency into the frame transfer time.
B. A switch tracks MAC addresses of directly-connected devices.
C. A switch operates at a lower, more efficient layer of the OSI model.
D. A switch decreases the number of broadcast domains.
E. A switch decreases the number of collision domains.
Some of the features and functions of a switch include:
A switch is essentially a fast, multi-port bridge, which can contain dozens of ports. Rather than creating two collision domains, each port creates its own collision domain. In a network of twenty nodes, twenty collision domains exist if each node is plugged into its own switch port. If an uplink port is included, one switch creates twenty-one single-node collision domains. A switch dynamically builds and maintains a Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) table, holding all of the necessary MAC information for each port. For a detailed description of how switches operate, and their key differences to hubs, see the reference link below.
What must occur before a workstation can exchange HTTP packets with a web server?
A. A UDP connection must be established between the workstation and its default gateway.
B. A UDP connection must be established between the workstation and the web server.
C. A TCP connection must be established between the workstation and its default gateway.
D. A TCP connection must be established between the workstation and the web server.
E. An ICMP connection must be established between the workstation and its default gateway.
F. An ICMP connection must be established between the workstation and the web server.
HTTP uses TCP port 80.
How does TCP differ from UDP? (Choose two.)
A. TCP provides best effort delivery.
B. TCP provides synchronized communication.
C. TCP segments are essentially datagrams.
D. TCP provides sequence numbering of packets.
E. TCP uses broadcast delivery.
TCP differs from UDP in the following ways: TCP provides best effort delivery.
TCP provides synchronized communication. TCP segments are essentially datagrams.
TCP provides sequence numbering of packets. TCP uses broadcast delivery.
A workstation has just resolved a browser URL to the IP address of a server. What protocol will the workstation now use to determine the destination MAC address to be placed into frames directed toward the server?
The RARP protocol is used to translate hardware interface addresses to protocol addresses. The RARP message format is very similar to the ARP format. When the booting computer sends the broadcast ARP request, it places its own hardware address in both the sending and receiving fields in the encapsulated ARP data packet. The RARP server will fill in the correct sending and receiving IP addresses in its response to the message. This way the booting computer will know its IP address when it gets the message from the RARP server.
For the initial communication, Host A will send a broadcast ARP (all F’s) to determine the correct address to use to reach the destination.
The network manager has requested a 300-workstation expansion of the network.
The workstations are to be installed in a single broadcast domain, but each workstation must have its own collision domain. The expansion is to be as cost-effective as possible while still meeting the requirements. Which three items will adequately fulfill the request? (Choose three).
A. one IP subnet with a mask of 255.255.254.0
B. two IP subnets with a mask of 255.255.255.0
C. seven 48-port hubs
D. seven 48-port switches
E. one router interface
F. seven router interfaces
of 255.255.254.0 can absorb 510 hosts being 23 bits mask and also 7*48 port switches can handle this much hosts and router interface is required to be minimum to avoid unnecessary wastage hence the answers.
What are two common TCP applications? (Choose two.)
SMTP uses TCP port 25, while FTP uses TCP ports 20 and 21.
A. It will drop the frame.
B. It will forward the frame out port Fa0/3 only.
C. It will flood the frame out all ports.
D. It will flood the frame out all ports except Fa0/3.
Switches learn the MAC addresses of PCs or workstations that are connected to their switch ports by examining the source address of frames that are received on that port. Machines may have been removed from a port, turned off, or moved to another port on the same switch or a different switch. This could cause confusion in frame forwarding. The MAC address entry is automatically discarded or aged out after 300 seconds If there is not MAC address of destination host in MAC table, switch sends broadcast to all ports except the source to find out the destination host. In the output there is no MAC address of the given host so the switch will flood to all ports except the source port, which is port fa 0/3.
Which two statements describe the operation of the CSMA/CD access method? (Choose two.)
A. In a CSMA/CD collision domain, multiple stations can successfully transmit data simultaneously.
B. In a CSMA/CD collision domain, stations must wait until the media is not in use before transmitting.
C. The use of hubs to enlarge the size of collision domains is one way to improve the operation of the
CSMA/CD access method.
D. After a collision, the station that detected the collision has first priority to resend the lost data.
E. After a collision, all stations run a random backoff algorithm. When the backoff delay period has expired,
all stations have equal priority to transmit data.
F. After a collision, all stations involved run an identical backoff algorithm and then synchronize with each
other prior to transmitting data.
Ethernet networking uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD), a protocol that helps devices share the bandwidth evenly without having two devices transmit at the same time on the network medium. CSMA/CD was created to overcome the problem of those collisions that occur when packets are transmitted simultaneously from different nodes. And trust me, good collision management is crucial, because when a node transmits in a CSMA/CD network, all the other nodes on the network receive and examine that transmission. Only bridges and routers can effectively prevent a transmission from propagating throughout the entire network! So, how does the CSMA/CD protocol work? Like this: when a host wants to transmit over the network, it first checks for the presence of a digital signal on the wire. If all is clear (no other host is transmitting), the host will then proceed with its transmission. But it doesn’t stop there. The transmitting host constantly monitors the wire to make sure no other hosts begin transmitting. If the host detects another signal on the wire, it sends out an extended jam signal that causes all nodes on the segment to stop sending data (think, busy signal). The nodes respond to that jam signal by waiting a while before attempting to transmit again. Backoff algorithms determine when the colliding stations can retransmit. If collisions keep occurring after 15 tries, the nodes attempting to transmit will then time out.
A. It will drop the frame.
B. It will forward the frame out port Fa0/6 only.
C. It will forward the frame out port Fa0/3 only.
D. It will flood the frame out all ports.
E. It will flood the frame out all ports except Fa0/3.
When frame receives the frame, it checks the source address on MAC table if MAC address found in MAC table it tries to forward if not in MAC table adds the Address on MAC table. After checking the source address, it checks the destination address on MAC table, if MAC address found on MAC table it forwards to proper ports otherwise floods on all ports except the source port.
A. The switch will add the source address and port to the MAC address table and forward the frame
to host D.
B. The switch will discard the frame and send an error message back to host A.
C. The switch will flood the frame out of all ports except for port Fa0/3.
D. The switch will add the destination address of the frame to the MAC address table and forward
the frame to host D.
When switch receives the data frame from the host not having the MAC address already on the MAC table, it will add the MAC address to source port on MAC address table and sends the data frame.
The Ctrl-Shift-6 x command suspends the telnet session and hence the prompt will again be Router2>
It should be one less than the switch IP to which it is connected so it will be B.
A. Network Device A is a switch.
B. Network Device B is a switch.
C. Network Device A is a hub.
D. Network Device B is a hub.
E. Area 1 contains a Layer 2 device.
F. Area 2 contains a Layer 2 device.
Switches use a separate collision domain for each port, so device A must be a switch. Hubs, however, place all ports in the same collision domain so device B is a hub. Switches reside in layer 2 while hubs are layer 1 devices.
Which two options will help to solve the problem of a network that is suffering a broadcast storm? (Choose two.)
A. a bridge
B. a router
C. a hub
D. a Layer 3 switch
E. an access point
Routers and layer 3 switches will not propagate broadcast traffic beyond the local segment, so the use of these devices is the best method for eliminating broadcast storms.
A switch uses a separate collision domain for each port so there are a total of 9 for each device shown. In addition to this, the switch to switch connections (3) are a separate collision domain. Finally, we add the switch to router connections (2) and the router to router connection (1) for a total of 15.
What does a host on an Ethernet network do when it is creating a frame and it does not have the destination address?
A. drops the frame
B. sends out a Layer 3 broadcast message
C. sends a message to the router requesting the address
D. sends out an ARP request with the destination IP address
Understanding this concept is prime for understanding that when switch receives the data frame from the host not having the MAC address already in the MAC table, it will add the MAC address to the source port on the MAC address table and sends the data frame. If the switch already has the MAC address in it’s table for the destination, it will forward the frame directly to the destination port. If it was not already in it’s MAC table, then they frame would have been flooded out all ports except for the port that it came from.
Refer to the exhibit. The ports that are shown are the only active ports on the switch. The MAC address table is shown in its entirety. The Ethernet frame that is shown arrives at the switch. What two operations will the switch perform when it receives this frame? (Choose two.)
A. The MAC address of 0000.00aa.aaaa will be added to the MAC address table.
B. The MAC address of 0000.00dd.dddd will be added to the MAC address table.
C. The frame will be forwarded out port fa0/3 only.
D. The frame will be forwarded out fa0/1, fa0/2, and fa0/3.
E. The frame will be forwarded out all the active ports.
If the switch already has the MAC address in its table for the destination, it will forward the frame directly to the destination port. If it was not already in its MAC table, then they frame would have been flooded out all ports except for the port that it came from.It will also add the MAC address of the source device to its MAC address table
A switch has 48 ports and 4 VLANs. How many collision and broadcast domains exist on the switch (collision, broadcast)?
A. 4, 48
B. 48, 4
C. 48, 1
D. 1, 48
E. 4, 1
A switch uses a separate collision domain for each port, and each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain.
Which address type does a switch use to make selective forwarding decisions?
A. source IP address
B. destination IP address
C. source and destination IP address
D. source MAC address
E. destination MAC address
Switches analyze the destination MAC to make its forwarding decision since it is a layer 2 device. Routers use the destination IP address to make forwarding decisions.
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